EAST AFRICA WILDEBEEST MIGRATION SAFARI TOURS IN KENYA & TANZANIA
From Serengeti in Tanzania to Masai Mara In Kenya....And Then Back Again, In One Epic Circle
There is nothing to equal it on the planet. An immense, herding mass of wildlife, by the millions, plodding forward in an ageless route of survival. The search for taller and fresher grasses sends these hordes of grazers – wildebeests, zebras, gazelle, and others – on a constant migration throughout the twelve months of the year, creating a cycle as predictable as the seasons themselves.
From the calving fields in the southern Serengeti, these immense herds of plains animals take a clockwise path into and through Kenya’s Masai Mara, and then later in the year, cross back into Tanzania. This great circle route is a symbiotic process between the grazers, the eco-systems through which they pass, and the masses of predators awaiting them, every step of the way.
The entire journey hums with expectant drama, not only because of the intense masses of wildlife but also because the cycles of birth and death play out along the route.
During the birthing season, up to half a million wildebeest newborns drop onto the fields of the Serengeti. Not far off, predators like lion, leopard, cheetah, jackal, and African wild dog are continually circling the grazers, driven by their own instinct for survival. As nature dictates, not everyone survives this timeless journey.
The Migration’s Astonishing Numbers
When we speak of the wildlife populating the Great Migration, the numbers seem breathtaking – some 1.5 million wildebeests, half a million gazelle, 300,000 zebra, and 18,000 eland antelope amongst other species, such as topi, make up this awesome planetary march through East Africa.
The great arc of this migratory route from Tanzania’s Serengeti to the Masai Mara in Kenya and then back again is some 1000 km/620 mi – all of it trekked month by month through the year. It’s a test of the animals’ endurance and only the strongest survive the predations of the big cats. The challenges of the route itself like the dangerous river crossings where crocodiles also lay in wait.
In an intriguing evolutionary development, each group of grazers consumes different parts of the grasses they come upon. Zebras eat the taller grasses, while wildebeests tend to eat the shorter. And in a fascinating natural symbiosis, it is thought the saliva from these herds, stimulates new growth in the grasses.
Attracted by the rains on the plains ahead, the animals seem to instinctively know that fresh grasses will follow, thus creating their natural route.
Month By Month Through The Great Migration
As with our own lives, every season has its purpose in the scheme of the Great Wildebeest Migration. From birth through maturation, to the northward moving of the herds in the summer months and then finally back again, each season is characterized by its special and unique phases.
January, February, and March – The Birthing Season
Heading south from the Masai Mara and northern Serengeti, the migration enters the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, the ecosystem holding the great Ngorongoro Crater, the largest, most intact volcanic caldera in the world. After the rains, the grasses here are long and fresh, attracting the wildebeest mothers who need these nutrient-rich grasses to help gestate and then raise their newborns.
The herds also congregate near Olduvai Gorge, the site of perhaps the world’s most significant anthropological areas. Between these two regions, about 500,000 wildebeest calves are born between January and March. If you visit during this time, you’ll be in the birthing fields where up to 8,000 calves come into being every day.
As mentioned, the drama of all this newborn activity is only matched by the many predators drawn to the site by the thousands of vulnerable animal babies. What plays out next is the aggressive tactics of the predators, defended by the protective movements of the wildebeest mothers. This drama enfolds a thousand times in these sprawling fields.
April, May & June – The Mating Season
Newborn wildebeests can stand almost immediately and can move with the herd in just a few days. Given a month or two in which to mature, by April the herds begin to travel northwest toward the grasses of the Serona, or central Serengeti. As they move, they are joined by thousands of zebra and antelope.
The migration does not follow the exact path every year but is an approximation, depending on the richness of the grasses and the availability of water.
The great trains of the migration soon stretch out for several kilometers. In May, the mating season begins, and with it, you can witness the males battling in head-to-head combat for mating rights.
The herds then turn toward the Serengeti’s western corridor, approaching the Grumeti River for their first crossing. This becomes a scene of high intensity as the animals gather in large numbers at the river’s edge, nervously anticipating the dangers ahead in the unknown waters where crocodiles await.
July, August & September – The Great Migration
The herds head north but they don’t move as one large group. Some split off, moving toward the Grumati Reserve. Many others, continue to the northern Serengeti, trekking toward the green grasses of Kenya’s Masai Mara.
By July, many thousands of wildebeest and zebra edge toward an even bigger and more treacherous river crossing, the Mara River. Feeling the dangers lurking beneath the waters, the animals become agitated – some take a mighty leap across the river, others fall short disappearing beneath the waters, swept away by the current, and still others are trampled by the exploding chaos of the moment.
This crossing is one of the most dramatic wildlife events to experience. You’ll witness nature in its most raw form as grazers and predators both vie for their survival. Approximately 250,000 wildebeests die during the months of their migration – about a sixth of the overall population. Besides the river crossings, death can come from thirst, starvation, and exhaustion.
But as tragic as these deaths appear to us, they are all a part of this natural order. Scavengers feed upon the carcasses which also provide immense amounts of nutrients to the surrounding ecosystem.
By late July and August, much of the herd has crossed the Mara and Talek Rivers and is moving through the Masai Mara’s northern reaches. For the many that have successfully crossed the rivers, danger constantly awaits from the many predators lurking in the Mara.
By September, the river crossings have diminished and the great swaths of migrating wildlife move eastward, always headed for new and fresher grasses.
October, November, & December – Another River Crossing
Come October and early November, the short rains arrive and the herds turn south, headed back once more to cross the treacherous waters of the Mara River. They trudge on to the eastern flanks of the Serengeti, known for its great number of cheetah sightings.
Finally, in December, the massive herds disperse throughout the eastern and southern parts of the Serengeti. The short rains have had their effect here and from December into January and more, the vegetation of the southern Serengeti is lush, attracting wildebeest, zebra, gazelle, and other grazers as the birthing season nears.
Soon the great fields here will be the site of massive calving as these plains wildlife and their predators, all give birth to their young. Not only can you see baby wildebeests, zebra, gazelle, monkeys, giraffes, and more. But, this is an excellent time to spot lion, leopard, and cheetah cubs.
And so this timeless cycle of the Great Migration continues as it has for ages, all of nature’s forces competing, cooperating, recycling, and ensuring the survival of life throughout this incredibly rich and diverse landscape.
Wildebeest Migration Safari Packages
Our recommended Kenya safaris taking you to Masai Mara National Reserve:
Our Combined Kenya & Tanzania Safaris visiting Masai Mara (in Kenya) & Serengeti (in Tanzania)
4 parks: Masai Mara, Serengeti, Ngorongoro Crater & Lake Manyara
Tanzania safari tours visiting Serengeti National Park:
After all the safari magic, conquer Mount Kilimanjaro
Africa's tallest mountain and world's tallest free standing mountain.
Wildebeest Migration Facts
Get ready to explore a fascinating array of wildebeest migration facts, shedding light on this extraordinary natural event. From the staggering number of wildebeest involved to the diverse range of other animals which join them, these captivating facts will deepen your understanding and appreciation of this remarkable wildlife spectacle.
Wildebeest migrate primarily in search of food and water. This annual journey across the vast landscapes of East Africa is driven by the need to find greener pastures and access to vital resources. As the seasons change and grazing conditions become depleted, wildebeest instinctively embark on these arduous migrations to ensure their survival and the continuation of their species.
Finding an Abundance of Nutritious Grasses and Water Sources
The primary driving force behind wildebeest migration is the pursuit of abundant, nutritious grasses. These herbivores follow the patterns of rainfall and vegetation growth, moving in vast herds to areas where fresh grazing lands have flourished. By migrating, wildebeest can feast on the lush, replenished grasses, ensuring they have an ample food supply to sustain their energy and wellbeing. Additionally, these migratory routes often lead them to accessible water sources, crucial for hydration and survival in the arid landscapes they traverse.
Predator Avoidance and Safety in Numbers
Wildebeest migration also serves as a survival strategy against predators. The large numbers and synchronized movements of the wildebeest herds create a formidable presence that makes it difficult for predators to single out and attack individual animals. By sticking together, wildebeest increase their chances of detecting and avoiding potential threats, such as lions and hyenas. This collective vigilance and safety in numbers significantly enhance their survival rates during these perilous migrations.
The wildebeest migration in Kenya typically takes place from July to October. This period showcases one of nature’s most extraordinary phenomena as millions of wildebeest, along with zebras and other herbivores, embark on their epic journey across the vast plains of East Africa. The migration is a captivating spectacle that enthralls wildlife enthusiasts and offers a unique opportunity to witness the raw power of nature in action.
The Great Migration: July to September
During the months of July to September, the wildebeest migration reaches its peak in Kenya. This is when the massive herds cross the Mara River, braving treacherous currents and confronting formidable predators in their quest for fresh grazing lands. The river crossings are iconic and breathtaking moments, where thousands of wildebeest plunge into the water, creating a dramatic spectacle as they navigate the dangerous waters. These months offer an incredible chance to witness the intense drama and adrenaline of the wildebeest migration.
Migration Movements: October
In October, as the dry season approaches, the wildebeest begin their return journey towards the Serengeti in Tanzania. This period sees the herds gradually making their way back south, seeking renewed pastures and water sources. The wildebeest migration in Kenya comes to a close as the vast herds bid farewell to the Kenyan plains, marking the end of this awe-inspiring natural cycle. However, the journey and spectacle continue in Tanzania, where the wildebeest embark on the next leg of their migratory journey.
Each year, an astounding number of wildebeest undertake the epic journey of the Great Wildebeest Migration. With an estimated population of over 1.5 million individuals, this remarkable spectacle showcases the immense scale and resilience of these iconic herbivores. Despite facing various challenges and threats in the wild, the wildebeest continue to demonstrate their tenacity, making their migration one of the most awe-inspiring wildlife events on the planet.
Population Dynamics and Fluctuations
The wildebeest population involved in the migration is subject to natural population dynamics and fluctuations. These fluctuations occur as a result of various factors, including the availability of food, water, and suitable habitats, as well as predation and disease. Nevertheless, the wildebeest population remains relatively stable and sustains the impressive numbers that make the migration a breathtaking sight to behold.
Conservation Status and Importance
While the wildebeest population is not currently classified as endangered, their conservation status varies depending on the specific subspecies and geographical regions. It is essential to recognize the significance of conservation efforts in protecting these magnificent animals and preserving their habitats. Sustainable conservation practices, including wildlife management and habitat preservation, play a vital role in ensuring the long-term survival of wildebeest populations and the continuation of the awe-inspiring Great Wildebeest Migration.
The wildebeest migration is an awe-inspiring journey that covers a vast distance across the plains of East Africa. These resilient herbivores undertake an extraordinary migration of approximately 1000 kilometers (620 miles) in their quest for greener pastures and access to vital resources. This remarkable distance showcases the determination and instinctual drive of the wildebeest as they navigate challenging terrains, rivers, and diverse landscapes during their epic annual migration.
From the Serengeti to the Masai Mara
The wildebeest migration spans from the vast plains of the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania to the Masai Mara National Reserve in Kenya. This incredible distance is traveled by millions of wildebeest, zebras, and other herbivores in search of fresh grazing lands. The migration route takes them through various ecosystems, including grasslands, woodlands, and riverine areas, each presenting its own set of challenges and opportunities.
A Cyclical Journey
The migration is a cyclical journey that follows the patterns of rainfall and vegetation growth. As the seasons change and grazing conditions become depleted, the wildebeest instinctively embark on their migratory route towards the Masai Mara. They stay in the Mara for several months before starting their return journey back to the Serengeti. This circular migration ensures a continuous cycle of renewal and sustenance for the wildebeest population, ensuring their survival and perpetuating the spectacle of this incredible natural phenomenon.
The Great Migration in East Africa is not solely an affair of wildebeest. Alongside the mighty wildebeest herds, there are other remarkable animals that embark on this epic journey. Zebras and gazelles are notable participants in this annual spectacle. With approximately 200,000 zebras and 500,000 gazelles joining the wildebeest, the migration becomes an extraordinary convergence of diverse species, each with its own fascinating characteristics and reasons for undertaking this arduous journey.
Zebras: Striped Wonders
Zebras, with their striking black and white striped coats, add a mesmerizing visual element to the Great Migration. They migrate alongside wildebeest in search of fresh grazing lands and water sources. Their ability to digest a wider range of grasses compared to wildebeest makes them valuable companions during the migration. Safari tourists are captivated by the beauty of zebras and their unique social behaviors, such as their communal defense strategies against predators. Witnessing thousands of zebras moving in unison is a sight that leaves visitors in awe of the natural world.
Gazelles: Graceful Antelopes
Gazelles, another migratory species, contribute their elegance and agility to the Great Migration. These graceful antelopes are known for their exceptional speed and leaping abilities, which help them navigate the challenging landscapes encountered during the migration. Gazelles migrate alongside wildebeest in search of abundant grazing grounds. For safari enthusiasts, observing gazelles bounding across the savannah and witnessing their interactions, including their distinctive mating rituals and territorial displays, adds an extra layer of excitement and wonder to the overall migration experience.
Eland Antelope: Majestic Giants
Among the participants in the Great Migration, the eland antelope stands out as one of the largest and most impressive species. These majestic giants, with their robust build and distinctive spiraled horns, undertake the arduous journey alongside the wildebeest and other migrating species. Elands migrate in search of fresh grazing lands and water, often covering vast distances in their quest for sustenance. For safari tourists, encountering eland antelope during the migration is a captivating experience. Their imposing presence and graceful movements against the backdrop of the African savannah leave a lasting impression, making them a prized sighting for wildlife enthusiasts.
Topi: The Athletes of the Migration
The topi, also known as the tsessebe, are the athletes of the Great Migration. These swift antelopes are renowned for their remarkable speed and agility, allowing them to keep pace with the wildebeest herds and navigate challenging terrains. Topis migrate alongside other herbivores, following the lush grasses and water sources as they move through the landscapes of East Africa. Their distinctive reddish-brown coats and long, slender horns make them visually striking. Safari tourists are thrilled to witness the topis’ energetic displays, which include impressive leaping and territorial fights, adding an exciting dynamic to the overall migration experience.
In the diverse ensemble of migrating animals, the eland antelope and topi play integral roles, contributing their unique characteristics and behaviors to the grand tapestry of the Great Migration. Their presence alongside the wildebeest, zebras, and gazelles enhances the spectacle, providing visitors with an unforgettable wildlife encounter and enriching their safari adventure.
Discover fascinating facts about wildebeest, the iconic African herbivores that roam the savannahs and woodlands. From their extraordinary migrations to their unique physical adaptations, delve into the captivating world of these resilient creatures.
Wildebeest, also known as gnus, are found primarily in the continents of Africa. They inhabit several countries within the eastern and southern regions of the continent, including Tanzania, Kenya, Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa. These diverse habitats offer different ecosystems and landscapes where wildebeest have adapted and flourished, captivating the imagination of wildlife enthusiasts worldwide.
The Great Migration: A Phenomenon in East Africa
One of the most extraordinary natural events involving wildebeest is the Great Migration. Taking place in East Africa, primarily in Tanzania and Kenya, the migration is a captivating spectacle that draws visitors from across the globe. Each year, millions of wildebeest, accompanied by zebras, gazelles, and other herbivores, embark on a cyclical journey in search of fresh grazing lands and water sources. Witnessing this awe-inspiring movement of immense herds across the vast plains of the Serengeti and the Masai Mara is an experience that surpasses expectations, leaving an indelible mark on the hearts of safari adventurers.
Experience the Great Migration with Africa Kenya Safaris
For those seeking an unparalleled wildlife encounter, Africa Kenya Safaris offers exceptional safari tours to witness the Great Migration up close and personal. With their expert guides and intimate knowledge of the region, Africa Kenya Safaris provides an immersive experience, ensuring that visitors can witness the wildebeest migration in all its grandeur. From comfortable lodges to thrilling game drives and guided walks, their carefully crafted itineraries allow travelers to explore the prime locations where the migration unfolds. Join Africa Kenya Safaris on an unforgettable adventure, capturing the breathtaking moments of wildebeest crossing treacherous rivers and encountering predators along the way, making memories that will last a lifetime.
In the vast savannahs of Africa, a group of wildebeest is commonly referred to as a “herd.” These iconic herbivores, known for their distinctive appearance and annual migration, gather in large numbers as they traverse the plains, creating a spectacle of collective movement and synchronized behaviour. The wildebeest herd is a dynamic entity, constantly on the move in search of fresh grazing lands and water sources.
Similarly, other popular safari animals have their own unique collective nouns that add to the allure of wildlife encounters:
- Lions: A group of lions is called a “pride.” These majestic felines live in social groups, typically consisting of several adult females, their offspring, and a dominant male or coalition of males. The pride works together for hunting, defending their territory, and nurturing the young, showcasing a remarkable display of teamwork and hierarchy.
- Elephants: A group of elephants is known as a “herd” as well. These gentle giants form strong family bonds, led by a matriarch. The herd comprises females and their young, creating a tight-knit community that supports and protects one another. Witnessing a herd of elephants on safari provides a glimpse into their intricate social structure and their remarkable intelligence and empathy.
- Giraffes: When it comes to giraffes, a group is referred to as a “tower” or a “journey.” These graceful creatures, with their long necks and distinctive patterns, often gather in small groups while foraging or drinking at watering holes. Spotting a tower of giraffes gracefully moving across the African plains is a remarkable sight to behold.
- Zebras: Zebras congregate in groups called “herds” or “dazzles.” These striped wonders form tight-knit social units, with a dominant stallion leading a group of females and their young. The collective movement of a zebra herd or a dazzling display of stripes against the backdrop of the savannah adds a vibrant and captivating element to the safari experience.
These collective nouns not only highlight the diversity of wildlife but also emphasize the interconnectedness and social dynamics within animal communities. Exploring the African wilderness with Africa Kenya Safaris provides opportunities to witness these fascinating groups of animals, immersing oneself in the wonders of nature and forging unforgettable memories.
Wildebeest, also known as gnus, have an average lifespan of approximately 20 years in the wild. These resilient herbivores navigate the African plains, surviving in challenging environments and facing various threats, including predation and drought. The life span of wildebeest is influenced by factors such as access to food, water, and the ability to avoid predators. While some individuals may live longer, the average life expectancy provides a general understanding of their time in the wild.
Other safari animals also have varying life spans, each adapted to their specific environments and lifestyles:
- Lions: Lions typically live for about 10 to 15 years in the wild. However, in captivity, they may live longer, with some individuals reaching their early 20s. Factors such as territory size, availability of prey, and competition with other lions can impact their life expectancy.
- Elephants: These majestic creatures are known for their longevity. African elephants have an average lifespan of around 60 to 70 years, with some individuals living well into their 70s or even 80s. Factors like habitat quality, access to resources, and protection from poaching significantly influence their life span.
- Giraffes: Giraffes have a relatively long life expectancy compared to many other animals. In the wild, they can live up to 25 years, with some individuals reaching their early 30s. However, in captivity, giraffes have been known to live even longer, with documented cases of individuals living into their 40s.
- Zebras: The average lifespan of zebras in the wild is around 20 to 25 years. However, some individuals have been known to live into their 30s. Factors such as predation, access to water, and competition for resources can impact their life expectancy.
Understanding the life span of safari animals provides insights into their resilience, adaptations, and the challenges they face in their natural habitats. Experiencing these incredible creatures on a safari with Africa Kenya Safaris offers a unique opportunity to witness their lives firsthand, deepening our appreciation for the delicate balance of nature.
Wildebeest, also known as gnus, possess a notable weight range. Adult male wildebeest can weigh between 440 to 600 kilograms (970 to 1,320 pounds), while females generally weigh slightly less, ranging from 260 to 370 kilograms (570 to 820 pounds). These robust herbivores showcase impressive physicality, with their muscular build and sturdy frames enabling them to endure the challenges of their African habitats.
Other safari animals exhibit varying weights, creating a fascinating spectrum of sizes in the wilderness. Here are some notable examples, ordered from lightest to heaviest:
- Thomson’s Gazelle: This agile antelope species is one of the lightest on the safari scene. Adult Thomson’s gazelles weigh approximately 20 to 30 kilograms (44 to 66 pounds), making them nimble and swift in their movements.
- Warthog: Known for their distinct appearance, warthogs are medium-sized wild pigs. These robust creatures can weigh between 50 to 150 kilograms (110 to 330 pounds), showcasing their sturdy build and powerful tusks.
- Zebra: Zebras, renowned for their striking black-and-white striped coats, have an average weight range of 200 to 450 kilograms (440 to 990 pounds). These herbivores possess a solid frame, allowing them to withstand the demands of their savannah habitats.
- Giraffe: As the tallest land mammals, giraffes possess a considerable weight range. Adult giraffes typically weigh between 800 to 1,200 kilograms (1,760 to 2,650 pounds), with males being heavier than females. Their long necks and limbs contribute to their impressive stature.
- Elephant: The African elephant holds the crown for being the heaviest land animal on Earth. Adult elephants can weigh anywhere from 5,000 to 7,000 kilograms (11,000 to 15,400 pounds), with males usually being larger than females. Their massive size and iconic tusks make them an awe-inspiring presence in the safari landscape.
Encountering these diverse safari animals, each with their distinctive weight ranges, adds to the fascination and wonder of the African wilderness. Africa Kenya Safaris offers extraordinary opportunities to witness these magnificent creatures up close, providing an immersive safari experience that celebrates the natural diversity of wildlife.
Wildebeest, also known as gnus, are herbivores with a diverse diet consisting mainly of grasses. These resilient animals graze on a wide range of grass species found in the African savannahs, plains, and woodlands. They have adapted to consume both short and tall grasses, utilizing their specialized teeth and jaws to efficiently extract nutrients from the vegetation.
Other safari animals also showcase fascinating dietary preferences and adaptations, adding to the intricate web of life in the wilderness:
- Giraffes: These elegant creatures have an incredibly selective diet, primarily feeding on the leaves, buds, and twigs of acacia trees. Their long necks and tongues enable them to reach foliage that is out of reach for other herbivores. Interestingly, giraffes have a specialized digestive system that allows them to extract maximum nutrients from the fibrous plant material they consume.
- Elephants: As the largest land mammals, elephants have a voracious appetite. They consume a variety of plant matter, including grasses, leaves, bark, fruits, and even tree branches. Elephants can consume up to 150 kilograms (330 pounds) of food per day, utilizing their strong trunks and tusks to gather and break down vegetation.
- Warthogs: These sturdy wild pigs are omnivorous, but their diet predominantly consists of grasses, roots, tubers, and bulbs. They use their snouts to dig for food, revealing hidden underground delicacies.
- Zebras: Zebras are primarily grazers, feeding on a wide range of grass species. Their digestive system is specialized to process fibrous plant material efficiently. Interestingly, zebras have a unique ability to digest and extract nutrients from tougher grasses that are less palatable to other herbivores.
These fun and interesting facts about the dietary preferences and adaptations of safari animals highlight the remarkable diversity and specialized behaviours within ecosystems. Exploring the African wilderness on a safari with Africa Kenya Safaris offers a front-row seat to witness these fascinating feeding habits and the intricate relationships between animals and their food sources.
Wildebeest, are herbivores with a substantial appetite. On average, a wildebeest can consume around 25 to 30 kilograms (55 to 66 pounds) of grass per day. These grazers have adapted to efficiently extract nutrients from the vegetation they consume, enabling them to sustain their energy levels and endure the challenges of their African habitats.
Other safari animals also showcase intriguing feeding behaviors and consumption patterns, adding to the wonder of the African wilderness:
- Elephants: As the largest land mammals, elephants have an impressive appetite. They can consume an astounding amount of food, with an adult elephant consuming up to 150 kilograms (330 pounds) of vegetation per day. This includes various plant matter such as grasses, leaves, bark, fruits, and branches.
- Giraffes: These graceful creatures have developed a unique feeding strategy to reach the foliage of tall trees. They use their long necks and tongues to browse leaves, buds, and twigs, consuming approximately 30 kilograms (66 pounds) of vegetation daily. Giraffes are highly selective eaters, targeting specific tree species, and their feeding behavior contributes to the natural pruning and shaping of the savannah vegetation.
- Zebras: Zebras are grazers that primarily feed on grasses. They have a relatively high metabolic rate and spend a significant portion of their day foraging. Zebras can consume around 10 to 15 kilograms (22 to 33 pounds) of grass per day to meet their nutritional needs.
- Warthogs: These sturdy wild pigs have an omnivorous diet, although their primary food source is grass. Warthogs can consume approximately 4 to 6 kilograms (8.8 to 13.2 pounds) of vegetation daily. They also supplement their diet with roots, tubers, bulbs, and even carrion on occasion.
These fascinating facts about the daily food intake of safari animals showcase the diverse strategies and adaptations that have evolved within ecosystems. Embarking on a safari adventure with Africa Kenya Safaris provides an opportunity to witness firsthand the incredible feeding behaviours and ecological interactions that shape the African wilderness.
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